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Environmental issues related to water resources span a range that includes restoration actions, allocation and management decisions, and approaches to assign value to non-market, ecological costs and benefits. The intersection of water-based science and environmental policy decisions often brings these issues to the fore. The science is needed to understand complex aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems to better make policy decisions on how to restore or improve their condition, weigh trade-offs from different land use or development options, or manage water resources for different purposes, such as critical habitat, recreation, navigation or irrigation. The National Research Council's (NRC) Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) has studied water-related environmental issues and has published reports that generally fall into the categories of environmental assessment, ecological restoration, and adaptive management.